Cultivation is an interesting, though troublesome, occupation, and at the same time justified by a plentiful harvest. A rare gardener manages to breed only one grape variety, and the optimal way to diversify the species in terms of energy, money and time is to plant an existing plant. This procedure, in addition, has other useful properties.
What is grape grafting?
This procedure involves the transfer of part of one plant (scion) in the form of a bud or cuttings to another (rootstock) for their growth, which is carried out due to the formation of new cells between the tissues of the stock and scion. Vaccination of grapes in the spring is not only a common and popular event for propagating the culture, but also a relatively easy way to change the variety. In addition, the procedure allows you to combine related species of the bush for the rejuvenation and rehabilitation of plantings.
Rootstocks are characterized by rapid growth and a relatively high level of immunity. In addition, a high-quality stalk has a large regenerative power of wood and root system. A correctly performed procedure guarantees an increase in the plant's lifespan, increases its winter hardiness and fruiting level, while the bush itself becomes more resistant to pests and diseases.
An important condition for the growth of a stock with a scion is the abundant movement of juice (apiary). In this regard, the optimal timing for grafting is the time after the buds swell. It is advisable to do this in the spring, after the end of the "crying" of the vine, when the bush gains strength and grows. An alternative is to vaccinate during the "cry" so that the liberated liquid disinfects the implantation site. It is important that the thickness of the stock does not exceed the diameter of the scion. The latter should be no thinner than a pencil.
The most favorable temperature for grafting grapes in spring is 15 degrees (as a rule, it is set in April). The weather should be warm, but not sultry: it is not recommended to plant a plant under the scorching sun. The procedure improves the following characteristics of grapes:
- Productivity Inoculation increases the fertility of long-growing varieties, because thanks to it, plants grow rapidly and form many fruit-bearing shoots.
- Immunity to pests, diseases. For the procedure, they are resistant to downy and powdery mildew, anthracnose, and other diseases. Bushes on which new cuttings were planted are less prone to phylloxera.
- Compactness. Grafting provides the opportunity to reduce the space reserved for the vineyard.
Due to the natural properties of grapes, on one bush you can grow several different varieties at once. So, within one season, a strong fruiting vine can be formed from a thin scion. For the procedure to succeed, certain rules must be followed, including the following:
- choose the right time for grafting;
- for stock use bushes older than 3 years;
- properly prepare and store cuttings;
- fully care for the grafted vine.
Do not use thin, damaged or deformed cuttings for grafting in the spring or at any other time of the year, as they will not take root on the bush. In addition, experienced gardeners do not recommend harvesting scions from the apical part of the shoot 30 cm long. It is important to cut cuttings perfectly evenly, then the graft will take root. In order not to spoil most of the vines, it is better to pre-train on any thin branches. When choosing a scion, consider these important nuances:
- optimal varieties - with high affinity (compatibility between scion and rootstock), because survival rate is significantly increased if the material belongs to the same growth group as the recipient plant;
- the best scion is a moderately moist stalk, which has a sign of a fallen mustache in the lower node;
- for grafting, it is recommended to choose hybrid varieties that are resistant to most grape diseases;
- in cold climates, varieties with high frost resistance are chosen as rootstock.
Preparation of cuttings
Grape grafting involves harvesting cuttings from autumn (October-November), until the start of frost. For this purpose, choose a healthy bush with high productivity and, using a clean, sharp knife, cut future scions so that each one has 2-3 eyes. The average length of each chubuk should be 9-12 cm. Damaged, crooked, unripe, too thin branches are not suitable, because they do not take root on the mother bush. In order for the grape grafting procedure to succeed in the spring, it is important to make an even cut of the cuttings.
Since there is a chance in the future to get confused where the scion has the top, where the bottom, the top of the forelock is cut off exactly, and the bottom cut is made oblique. Prepared young cuttings are immersed for 30 seconds in a 3% solution of copper sulfate - this is necessary in order to disinfect the material. After scions are laid out on a clean surface and dried. When the branches get rid of excess moisture, they should be covered with a dense cling film, providing relative tightness, and placed in a refrigerator or cellar with a temperature regime of no higher than 5 degrees.
Before starting the cultivation of an improved cultivar, you should familiarize yourself with the existing methods of grafting grapes in the spring, and then choose the most suitable one from them. The vaccination methods presented below have a high degree of survival and do not require serious labor costs. The procedure carried out in the spring, involves the selection of optimal dates (April - early May). At this time, it is allowed to carry out underground types of vaccinations, including methods such as:
- in the butt;
- in the cleavage;
- end to end;
- on individual root;
- in the stand of the bush;
- black to black;
- green method.
In the bush standard
As a rule, grapes are grafted onto an old bush in the spring in this way. The advantage of the method is the ability to bind several varieties at once to the mother bush. At the same time, at least 3 buds should be on the cuttings. Inoculate grapes in the spring as follows:
- the plant is dug to a depth of 20 cm, the trunk is cleaned of old bark and dirt, wiping with a rag;
- in the upper part of the roots, choose a suitable internode, then remove the aerial part of the bush with a knife (before the procedure, it is better to sharpen the garden tool so that the incision is perfectly even);
- several slots are made in the prepared stub (depth - 3-5 cm) for setting scions;
- to avoid a strong split of the wood, before splitting the stock on the knot is pulled together with twine;
- to seal the joining point of the cuttings must be covered with plasticine or glossed with paraffin;
- this area is covered with a film on top, and then sprinkled with earth;
- grapes need to be watered if necessary, and at the end of summer shelter in the form of a heap of land is removed.
When grafted with the standard method, the cuttings are given the shape that matches the recesses on the stock. At the same time, the bark is preserved from the outside of the chubuk, which is in close contact with the stem, which increases the likelihood of fusion. The advantage of the method is the ability to introduce several cuttings at once. Grafting of grapes in spring is carried out in the same way as in autumn, but for growing in the warm season, hilling of the bush is not required, and a greenhouse will be necessary. The latter is kept for at least a month until the graft has taken root.
Into the cleavage
This method implants last year's or older shoot obtained from an annual green vine. The optimal area is the space between the second and third nodes. An important condition for survival is the temperature regime: the optimum is 22-26 degrees. The procedure is carried out after preliminary disinfection of instruments. It is important to vaccinate the grapes quickly in the spring to prevent the working material from drying out.
The disadvantage of this method is a noticeable injury to the mother bush. In addition, there is a risk of not calculating the strength to make a split of greater depth or completely break the standard. Even if the gap is of the right size, its inner edges are rough and uneven, so they may not coincide with a smoothly cut stock, which will make it difficult to grow together. The plus of the splitting method is the high resistance of the renewed bush to diseases and parasites. In spring, the procedure is carried out as follows:
- the cut section is updated by means of a secateurs 4 cm below the extreme kidney;
- to form a cut under the lower kidney (at a distance of 0.5 cm) make a small incision directed inside the scion, after the knife is turned at an angle to the edge of the handle and cut in such a way as if sharpening a pencil;
- the above fraud is repeated from the opposite side, resulting in a wedge;
- after the chubuk is placed in water, preventing the oxidation of the slice;
- in one split, 2 or more cuttings are allowed;
- before surgery, Chubuki dipped in a root growth stimulator (Heteroauxin) for 2-4 seconds;
- the finished chubuk is deepened into the cleavage so that the lower kidney is directed outward and the lateral edge of the wedge coincides with the rootstock bark (the main condition is the coincidence of the outer edges of the graft and rootstock, since the fusion is between cambial layers located under the bark);
- the gap remaining after grafting the grapes can be covered with soft paper, squeezing it inside;
- the horizontal section is covered with garden var (a mixture of wood resin and other components);
- the junction of the stock with the scion must be wrapped, pressing firmly on the sides (for this, a special tape that is highly elastic is ideal).
Grape grafting in spring in black to black
As a rule, this method is used in the spring, when a chubuk harvested from last season is attached to the annual shoot. The grafts can be grafted only to a vigorous, resistant to low temperatures and most diseases bush. The best choice is a 3-5 year old plant. They begin to prepare for the procedure in the fall: fertilizers are applied under the bush. In spring, all leaves are removed from the selected vine. It is better to carry out the procedure before the start of sap flow, but after the establishment of a warm temperature (10-15 degrees). Grapes are grafted as follows:
- the day before the procedure, the scion is placed in a solution stimulating root formation of the drug (for example, Humate, which needs 10 drops per liter of water);
- the cuttings are placed in a solution alternately for 7-10 seconds;
- on the rootstock cut off the upper part (at a distance of 5 cm from the site);
- the vaccination site is determined between 2 and 3 knots, wiped with a weak solution of potassium permanganate;
- the stock is split so that a longitudinal recess is formed relatively deep (up to 3 cm);
- a chubuk is placed in the formed cleft;
- the vaccination area is tightly wrapped with a cotton cloth to prevent sapotage, and soaked in water;
- this place is covered with a film on top (it is important to maintain the temperature in the vaccination area at the level of 22-26 degrees);
- upon completion of the operation, the vaccination site is treated with a physiologically active drug that will accelerate the healing of the vaccine and the fusion of the stock with the scion.
This method of grafting grapes in the spring is laborious and time consuming - this is its minus. Nevertheless, the black-to-black method is ideally suited for obtaining a new variety, but is not going to hold measures to grow a new bush again. Subject to all the rules of the procedure and proper care, the gardener will receive updated grapes with a plentiful harvest.
Copulation is carried out in the spring, all preparatory procedures and the strapping process are done, as in the classic vaccination in the split. Only the method of connecting the cuttings with the stock differs. Copying in the spring is a difficult way of grafting, so you can resort to it only if you have extensive experience working with fruit trees and grapes. Operation Sequence:
- on the scion and shoot of the mother plant, identical one-sided oblique mediums 2-3 cm long are made;
- optimally, the length of the slices on the scion and cuttings completely coincided, and the surface of the cut was very smooth;
- after the components are connected and tied with a winding material.
This method involves the expenditure of a minimum amount of time on preparatory work, due to which the latter merges well with the stock. Another plus is the ease of manipulation. For grafting grapes by drilling, scions with two or more buds are suitable. The procedure is carried out in the spring - in late April or early May, when an active sap flow began near the bush.
- 3-4 days before the operation, the material is wrapped with a damp rag and placed in a warm place (optimal mode is 20-25 degrees);
- after refresh the slices;
- the bark from below is removed with a 5 mm knife until the cambium appears;
- after they take a small drill, disinfect it in a potassium permanganate solution and introduce it into the prepared vine shallow, making a hole with a diameter equal to a handle (it is better to choose a strong, thick bole located closer to the ground);
- the prepared chubuk is immediately immersed there so that the layers of cambium rootstock and scion coincide;
- the place of joining is filled with wax or glossed with plasticine;
- to increase the chances of survival, it is recommended to plant several cuttings at once.
This method is used when the branch of an adult bush is twisted due to age and it is impossible to make a thin straight cut. In this situation, it is necessary to cut triangular wedges on the mother plant and on the scion. The main requirements for grafting grapes in the spring in the butt is to keep the whole kidneys and bark above them, and fix the supply of the stalk with twine. The advantage of the method is its maximum reliability (most grafts take root). The operation is carried out in May as follows:
- from the selected vine carry out the removal of leaves and stepsons;
- after they look at the area of future budding on the stock and evaluate what shape to cut;
- a section with a kidney is cut from a mature shoot (the scion thickness should be 2 mm), while the knife is placed 1-1.5 cm below the eye and deepened 1-2 mm inside the wood, making a semicircular cut;
- the knife blade is rearranged 1-1.5 cm above the kidney and also make an incision;
- after they smoothly lead the knife down to the lower cut, picking up the resulting shield with a blade and thumb;
- the cut plate is placed in a small container in an ode;
- a similar cut is made on a rootstock branch, while in the lower part it is better to leave a small pocket to facilitate fixation;
- the prepared guard of the handle is inserted behind the pocket on the cut of the rootstock, pressing tightly, wrap with a bandage (the eye itself should remain open).
Grape Care after Vaccination
The development of a grafted plant depends on the quality of care for it. It is extremely important to pay attention to some features that help the scion to take root on a new plant. After grafting grapes in the spring, you must:
- Water the bush, loosen the soil around the headquarters. The latter is necessary to provide the plant with the necessary amount of oxygen. Further watering is carried out on schedule.
- Ensure a tight winding of the vaccination site. At the same time, the bandage should not be too tight, but it is extremely important that it does not allow sap flow. The flowing apiary can cause the death of grapes.
- Inspect the mother branch 2 weeks after vaccination.If the eyes did not begin to germinate, this indicates a poor result of the procedure.
- To control the process of splicing of the cuttings with stock. If roots appear that do not grow in the mother branch, they should be removed.
- To treat the plant from fungal infections. This is necessary due to the weakening of the protective properties of the bush after vaccination.
You can plant grapes correctly only by strictly following the instructions. Even experienced gardeners who rely on their knowledge and ignore vaccination technology do not achieve the expected result. The most common mistakes during the procedure are:
- Large depth of splitting. As a result of this, the scion and stock are incorrectly connected: they do not fit tightly together, moist air enters the voids, which causes decay, which provokes the pathogenic flora.
- Incompatibility of cuttings with the mother bush. Materials should have similar environmental properties, it is optimal that the varieties have the same ripening time. If the biorhythms of the plants do not coincide, the stalk will die.
- Improper storage of scions. It is important to preserve all the nutritious juices in them, for which they are dipped in liquid paraffin.
- Incorrect selection of tools. If the cut is uneven, there will be no tight fit of materials, so it is extremely important to choose and prepare the inventory correctly.