What is thrush: symptoms and treatment

Many women periodically experience symptoms of a disease called thrush or candidiasis. Only at the appointment with a qualified gynecologist you will receive full information about what is thrush and how to recover from it. Self-medication in this case is very undesirable, because the disease, when ignored or improperly treated, gradually turns into a chronic form, which has more dangerous consequences for health than its initial stage.

Causes of Thrush

What is thrush? This is a disease caused by Candida yeast. Representatives of opportunistic flora are found in the body of all people, in the mouth, intestines, genital mucosa and on the skin. Surprisingly, these fungi can be beneficial, they participate in the synthesis of B vitamins. But, due to certain conditions, the number of mushrooms increases and then a person feels all the "charms" of candidiasis .-

You can get sick with candidiasis literally from everything. Scientists are still arguing about what thrush is, a variety of versions have been put forward. The reasons are not one, but several. Vaginal candidiasis - manifests itself mainly in women, but the manifestation of symptoms of thrush is not excluded in children and men. Consider several possible reasons.

Among women

What is thrush and what does it come from? The main reason is a decrease in acidity in the vagina, i.e. violation of its normal microflora, this occurs for several reasons:

  • underwear made of synthetics, which creates the conditions for the growth of bacteria;
  • taking antibiotics. They act on the microflora of the human body by destroying beneficial bacteria called saprophytes, which have a protective function and prevent the growth of fungi;
  • taking contraceptive drugs often causes hormonal disorders;
  • sweet teeth are often susceptible to fungal manifestations;
  • improperly selected or cheap means for hygiene of intimate zones;
  • stressful situations, depression;
  • during a long journey by train or bus, due to a forced sitting position;
  • hormonal disorders due to diabetes and pregnancy lead to hormonal disorders.
  • during menopause.

In men

Men are also prone to thrush. In representatives of the stronger sex, candidiasis can be caused by balanoposthitis (inflammation of the glans penis of fungal etiology). Candidiasis in this case, with great speed, affects the inner leaf of the foreskin, causing a lot of inconvenience. A feature of male disease is both a bright, abrupt onset and its rapid disappearance, although this does not mean that treatment is not necessary.

In children

In girls of virgins of adolescence, when the formation of the hormonal system occurs, thrush can begin. Can provoke a disease

  • improper hygiene;
  • wearing synthetic tight-fitting underwear;
  • sitting on cold surfaces such as tiles, stones, earth.

If the expectant mother has candidiasis, then during childbirth, passing the birth canal, the baby in 98% of cases will become infected with these bacteria. The disease often appears in children up to one year of life in the mouth. This trouble appears in infants or those whose food is one milk. Reasons for the manifestation of candidiasis in children:

  • dry air in the room where the child is located leads to a decrease in saliva in the mouth, which protects the mucous membrane;
  • rare walks in the fresh air;
  • prolonged cries of the baby;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing leads to drying of the saliva, the protective functions of the mucosa are reduced, which contributes to the growth of the fungus;
  • mold indoors promotes the growth of fungus.

Types of disease

There are a lot of types of candidiasis, more and more researchers discover new subspecies of this disease:

  1. Acute - the initial stage of development of thrush, when all the symptoms are bright, the clinical picture is confirmed by the results of the tests. This period lasts up to one month.
  2. Chronic candidiasis is acquired due to ignoring the symptoms, the infected person does not seek the help of a specialist or is self-medicating.
  3. Candidiasis sepsis - The most severe and rare form when there is an infection of the blood and all internal organs with fungi. It begins due to a strong decrease in the body's defenses, for example, during immunodeficiency syndrome or after chemotherapy of cancer patients.

According to its localization, candidiasis is divided into the following types:

  1. Urogenital candida fungus. The vaginal area is affected with the transition to the external genitalia, sometimes the urethra and bladder become inflamed. In men, it appears on the glans penis in the form of redness and the formation of ulcers, microcracks.
  2. Thrush of the oral mucosa - the disease manifests itself in both young children and adults. It is localized on the tongue, cheeks, gums and is called candidal stomatitis.
  3. Candidiasis of the surface of the skin, nails.


What is vaginal thrush, and how does it manifest? Symptoms help to suspect a disease, but only diagnostic tests can reliably confirm it. Candida albicans can greatly affect the well-being of a girl. In the early days, when candidiasis is in acute form, the symptoms of the disease are:

  • general weakness, increased body temperature;
  • intolerable itching inside the vagina and genital area;
  • vaginal discharge in large quantities, they have a bright white color and a sour smell;
  • pain during urination;
  • itching and pain in the sphincter, the presence of microcracks on the walls of the anus, pain during bowel movements;
  • soreness during sexual activity.

What is male thrush and what to do when it appears? In the stronger sex, the disease often proceeds without symptoms, but if they are, then some inconvenience is felt:

  • redness of the entire glans penis;
  • pain and burning during urination;
  • plaque on the surface of the glans penis.

What is baby thrush? This disease in the oral cavity, manifests itself in the form of small red spots with a characteristic whitish coating on the tongue and cheeks. At the same time, it is considered the norm when a child under one year old has a whitish coating, in this case you can not panic and do not go to the doctor. In most cases, the manifestations do not cause inconvenience to the child.

What does it look like

The doctor, during admission and visual examination, can easily determine the presence of candidiasis in a woman. Characteristic features are severe edema of the external genitalia with a pronounced red color. During the examination on a gynecological chair, a specialist, even before the instrument is inserted into the vagina, shows white, thick discharge and swelling of the labia - a clear sign of the disease.

During a man’s visit to a doctor for complaints of discomfort, the urologist notes:

  • severe redness of the urethra;
  • the glans penis is swollen and crimson;
  • the surface of the glans penis is loose, not smooth, has a white coating, sores, microcracks, slight discharge.

In children, it is easy to determine the disease using a visual examination of the oral cavity:

  • sores in the form of pale red spots on the cheeks and tongue;
  • white plaque on the tongue and cheeks inside.

Is sexually transmitted

Candidiasis is not considered a sexually transmitted disease, however, with a high probability, it is transmitted sexually. Especially often this ailment occurs in men and women who lead an illegible sex life, without contraceptive protection. Especially young people who abuse alcohol and drugs .-

What to treat

To get rid of the disease, it is necessary to undergo a complete, effective and adequate treatment. Many people think that taking one magic pill, even the most expensive one, will solve the problem and permanently save you from the disease in one day - this is an erroneous opinion. Particular attention should be paid to strengthening immunity, vitamins will help in this. The doctor prescribes antifungal drugs, the course of treatment is from 7 to 10 days.

Local therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system not only allows you to destroy pathogens, but also inevitably leads to an imbalance in the beneficial microflora of the vagina and a decrease in local immunity. If you do not make a quick recovery of lactoflora, conditionally pathogenic microflora may be activated, which will lead to exacerbation of thrush or bacterial infections. For the same reason, antifungal therapy of vaginal candidiasis may not be effective. Therefore, it is important after the first stage of treatment aimed at eliminating the infection, to carry out the second stage - to restore the balance of beneficial microflora using Lactozhinal capsules. This is the only drug-tribotic registered in the territory of the Russian Federation. Lactozhinal quickly restores pH, vaginal microflora and protects against repeated exacerbation of bacterial vaginosis and thrush. Two-stage therapy has recently become the gold standard in the treatment of conditions accompanied by pathological discharge. Many experts are sure that only this method can provide a pronounced and long-term therapeutic effect, strengthen local immunity, which serves as a prevention of subsequent exacerbations.

Medications for adults

The treatment for men and women is not different, in both cases it is aimed at the destruction of fungi of the genus Sandida. Treatment is carried out both locally with warm baths, with the addition of soda, and douching with herbal infusions to wash off plaque and secretions, and with the course of taking antifungal drugs, in the form of tablets and suppositories.


For the treatment of thrush, women use such drugs:

  • Diflucan. This drug is available in the form of tablets, has the property of inhibiting the reproduction of yeast fungi. Indicated for use in the fight against all types of candidiasis. The duration of treatment is from 7 to 14 days. Contraindicated in pregnant women during breastfeeding and children under 16 years of age. It is applied once by a course, the dosage is determined by the attending doctor, depending on the severity of the disease and its location. Before use, talk with your gynecologist.
  • Miramistin - a solution or ointment, is an analogue of Diflucan. It is used as an antiseptic agent after operations, for the control and prevention of the occurrence of streptococci, staphylococci and yeast fungi. Actively affects sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment is by irrigation of the affected areas of the mucosa. For people with a reaction to the components of the drug, this product is contraindicated. Sometimes treatment for Mirimistin’s disease has a side effect of redness and itching in the area of ​​application of the solution or ointment.
  • Clotrimazole prescribed locally in the form of ointments, aerosol, vaginal tablets for the treatment of urogenital candidiasis. Before going to bed, a pill is injected deep into the vagina, and the external genitals are lubricated with a thin layer of ointment or irrigated with a solution. The course of treatment of the disease consists of 2 weeks of continuous use. There are no side effects. Contraindication is the first three months of pregnancy.


How to treat candidiasis in men:

  • Flucostat released in the form of capsules, solutions. The course is from 2 weeks, while the dosage is prescribed by the doctor. The instruction for the use of flucostat involves side effects in the form of sleep disturbances, stool, digestive system, skin rashes. Contraindicated in children under 3 years.
  • Fluconazole It has an active antifungal effect. Available in the form of tablets and capsules. It is taken once every 24 hours, the course is from two weeks to one month. About the drug Fluconazole, the reviews of doctors are positive, candidiasis passes quickly. During the reception, stool disturbance and increased flatulence can be observed. Instructions for use of fluconazole provide contraindications for children under 14 years of age.
  • Pimafucin - antifungal drug. Available in the form of suppositories, tablets and cream. Not more than 4 tablets are prescribed per day, the duration of treatment is from 7 days. Suppositories are administered rectally (into the rectum), with a cream, lubricate the glans penis twice a day. Instructions for use pimafucin suggests side effects: mild itching, which goes away on its own.

During pregnancy

During pregnancy, doctors prefer to treat candidiasis in the local way in the form of baths, by irrigation with an antiseptic solution or by applying an antifungal cream to the affected mucous membranes. Folk remedies also enter the course of treatment, although they take more time in the fight against fungus. Such procedures will not harm the bearing of the child. Acceptable drugs during pregnancy: suppositories and ointment Clotrimazole, Nystatin ointment, Epigem aerosol, tea tree oil.

For a child

To cure fungal stomatitis in a child, such drugs are sometimes prescribed:

  • Nystatin for children in granules is convenient for the preparation of a therapeutic solution. According to the instructions for treatment, the drug is diluted with water and the child’s oral cavity is lubricated no more than twice a day. Take medication with your pediatrician.
  • Sodium tetraborate released in the form of a ready-made solution, which is applied to the wrapped bandage around the finger and the tongue is processed, the inner surface of the baby's cheeks. Press on the affected areas with force to remove the plaque. Talk to your pediatrician before use.

Treatment with folk remedies

The safest method of treatment for health is folk recipes. Due to the natural components of these methods are suitable for the treatment of women, men and children. For girls, such options are suitable:

  1. In 1 liter of warm boiled water, dilute 2 tsp. soda, mix thoroughly. Such a solution must be douched at home several times a day. Soda water not only destroys the propagation of fungi of the genus Candida, but also relieves itchy sensations in the vagina.
  2. 1 tbsp. l dilute tea tree oil with 250 ml of warm water, moisten a cotton swab in solution and treat the entrance to the vagina. This procedure should be done before bedtime.

For men, the following procedures are suitable:

  1. In 1 liter of warm water, dilute 1 tbsp. l soda and 1 tsp. iodine. In this solution, it is necessary to place the foreskin, after opening the glans penis, hold for at least 15 minutes. The process of treating the disease is repeated several times a day for one week.
  2. In the fight against candidiasis, celandine juice showed good results, you need to drink it on an empty stomach, once a day for a month. It is an antibacterial, antifungal agent.

Children are also treated with folk remedies:

  1. The soda solution is wiped the oral cavity, removing white plaque.
  2. Brew grass of chamomile or hypericum in the amount of 2 tsp. 250 ml of boiling water, insisting on a water bath. With the resulting solution, wipe the tongue with a sterile bandage, moving from its root to the tip.


Modern medicine warns that ignoring the symptoms of candidiasis, you endanger your life. Converting the initial stage of the disease to the chronic one, in which the entire human body is affected by the fungus, in this case only inpatient treatment will be effective.Women with a chronic form of candidiasis have a risk of developing cervical erosion. Due to the disease in men, erection and sexual activity are reduced. If untreated, infertility is common in both cases.

Thrush prophylaxis

In order for the disease not to overtake you again, you must completely reconsider your lifestyle and conduct a series of comprehensive preventive measures:

  • Adjusting the food culture involves replacing unhealthy sweets with fruits. Reduce, and it is better to completely abandon fatty and cholesterol-rich foods, including animal products - meat, fish, milk, eggs. Introduce more vegetables and greens into your daily diet. Thanks to such a diet, you will forget about candidiasis forever.
  • Change thick synthetic underwear to cotton.
  • If you need to take antibiotics, you need to use preventive drugs based on lactobacilli.
  • Discard daily pads.
  • Establish daily intimate hygiene using high-quality care products for this area.
  • Daily work on the psycho-emotional state, avoiding stress and depression in your life.

Reviews on the treatment of candidiasis

Maria, 25 years old - “I suffered for a long time with thrush, tried to treat it myself with nystatin ointment, but the constant itching did not go away. I could not stand this horror and turned to the clinic. At the doctor’s appointment, he prescribed fluconazole suppositories. After two days of treatment, it became much easier, on the third symptoms disappeared completely, but continued to receive according to the instructions and prescription of the doctor. Another gynecologist said that my partner also needs preventive treatment. "
Olga, 33 years old - “I get signs of candidiasis a week before menstruation: genital itching, the discharge is yellowish and smell bad. To prevent relapse, I turned to gynecology. At the doctor’s appointment I prescribed candles Pimafucin, from which the next day "I began to feel better, the burning sensation stopped. I did not quit the treatment of the disease, but continued for two weeks, as the doctor advised."
Natalya, 40 years old - “My son was 16 years old, about a month ago they took strong antibiotics as needed. Gums and tongue appeared sores and a white coating. I am very grateful to the doctor who recognized my boy starting candidiasis stomatitis. He prescribed a solution "Rinse Fluconazole, which turned out to be very inexpensive. After two weeks of administration, candidiasis has passed."


The videos clearly show what candidiasis looks like, qualified specialists give advice on the methods of its treatment and specific advice on the prevention of the disease. Early diagnosis of the disease helps minimize negative consequences. The methodology for diagnosing thrush in children is explained and how it differs from normal plaque on the surface of the tongue.

How to determine

Proper treatment

White plaque in the baby's mouth

CONTRAINDICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE. CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE APPLICATION.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Watch the video: Candiduria: Risk Factors, Symptoms and Treatment (February 2020).